EMAN RESEARCH PUBLISHING | Journal | <p>Angiogenesis and its potential role in the growth and proliferation of pathogens</p>
Angiogenesis biology and therapeutics
REVIEWS   (Open Access)

Angiogenesis and its potential role in the growth and proliferation of pathogens

Brownyn Lok a, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid a, b*, Aman Shah Abdul Majid c

+ Author Affiliations

Journal of Angiotherapy 1(1) 001-011 https://doi.org/10.25163/angiotherapy.11000121421300417

Submitted: 16 April 2019  Revised: 16 April 2019  Published: 16 April 2019 

Angiogenesis is an important physiological process by which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. Hence, targeting angiogenesis may have a potential therapeutic value in treating or managing pathogen infection.

Abstract


Angiogenesis is an important physiological process by which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. Other than being an important physiological process in embryo development, wound healing, and in response to ovulation (Adair and Montani, 2010a), it also contributes to the pathology of a number of diseases. Several pathogens, including bacteria, mycobacteria, and viruses, induce angiogenesis during their infection and their pathogenesis within the human body. The excessive angiogenesis induced by the infection of these pathogens usually contributes to the seriousness of the disease. Several bacteria of the Bartonella genus induce angiogenesis during their infection of the human body, as well as Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Viruses such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), and orf virus also triggers angiogenesis during their infection. The principal mode of angiogenesis activation is via the stimulation of inflammatory mediators that lead to the increase of VEGF, which is the primary signalling molecule for angiogenesis activation. An increased level of VEGF in the plasma is common in a number of pathogen-induced diseases. The state of hypoxia that resulted from infections activates HIF-1, a transcription factor for VEGF expression (Forsythe et al., 1996). Other important angiogenesis mediators that were activated during pathogenesis include cytokines like IL-6 and -8, angiogenins, as well as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).  Hence, targeting angiogenesis may have a potential therapeutic value in treating or managing pathogen infection.

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