Metabolic Syndrome and Cat Whiskers Herb
Metabolic Syndrome and Cat Whiskers Herb
Raghdaa Al Zarzoura*, Aman Shah Abdul Majidb & Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majidc,d
Australian Herbal Insight 1(4) 011-015 https://doi.org/10.25163/ahi.110004
Submitted: 21 August 2018 Revised: 19 September 2018 Published: 25 September 2018
Metabolic Syndrome is a collection of associated health problems that affects much of the world population today. These include hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin resistance; all of which can increase the risk of stroke, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. These illnesses are interrelated and having one complication can lead to several other diseases. A number of herbs that have high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties can help to improve the management of metabolic syndrome. Orthosiphon stamineus, also known commonly as Cat Whiskers herb is widely used in the Asian region to treat metabolic syndrome associated health problems. This is due to its unique phytochemical properties that target key biochemical pathways that are involved in metabolic diseases. This review highlights key aspects of Metabolic Syndrome and how Cat Whiskers herb can play an important role in treating this disease.
Key words: Metabolic Syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, Orthosiphon stamineus , Cat Whiskers.
ABDELWAHAB, S. I., MOHAN, S., MOHAMED ELHASSAN, M., AL-MEKHLAFI, N., MARIOD, A. A., ABDUL, A. B., ABDULLA, M. A. & ALKHARFY, K. M. 2011. Antiapoptotic and antioxidant properties of Orthosiphon stamineus benth (Cat's Whiskers): intervention in the Bcl-2-mediated apoptotic pathway. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011.
ADNYANA, I. K., SETIAWAN, F. & INSANU, M. 2013. From ethnopharmacology to clinical study of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. studies, 1.
AHAMED, M. B. K., AISHA, A. F., NASSAR, Z. D., SIDDIQUI, J. M., ISMAIL, Z., OMARI, S., PARISH, C. & MAJID, A. A. 2012. Cat's whiskers tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) extract inhibits growth of colon tumor in nude mice and angiogenesis in endothelial cells via suppressing VEGFR phosphorylation. Nutrition and Cancer, 64, 89-99.
ALMATAR, M., EKAL, H. & RAHMAT, Z. 2014. A glance on medical applications of Orthosiphon stamineus and some of its oxidative compounds. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res, 24, 83-88.
BALA, A., KAR, B., KARMAKAR, I., KUMAR, R. S. & HALDAR, P. K. 2012. Antioxidant activity of Cat's whiskers flavonoid on some reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generating inflammatory cells is mediated by scavenging of free radicals. Chinese journal of natural medicines, 10, 321-327.
BALLESTRI, S., ZONA, S., TARGHER, G., ROMAGNOLI, D., BALDELLI, E., NASCIMBENI, F., ROVERATO, A., GUARALDI, G. & LONARDO, A. 2016. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with an almost twofold increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 31, 936-944.
BAR-OR, D. & BAR-OR, R. 2013. Measurement and uses of oxidative status. Google Patents.
BENEDICT, M. & ZHANG, X. 2017. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: An expanded review. World journal of hepatology, 9, 715.
CHOI, H., DE VERA, M. & KRISHNAN, E. 2008. Gout and the risk of type 2 diabetes among men with a high cardiovascular risk profile. Rheumatology, 47, 1567-1570.
ECKEL, R. H., GRUNDY, S. M. & ZIMMET, P. Z. 2005. The metabolic syndrome. The lancet, 365, 1415-1428.
EHRMANN, D. A., LILJENQUIST, D. R., KASZA, K., AZZIZ, R., LEGRO, R. S., GHAZZI, M. N. & GROUP, P. T. S. 2006. Prevalence and predictors of the metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 91, 48-53.
FAGOT-CAMPAGNA, A., PETTITT, D. J., ENGELGAU, M. M., BURROWS, N. R., GEISS, L. S., VALDEZ, R., BECKLES, G. L., SAADDINE, J., GREGG, E. W. & WILLIAMSON, D. F. 2000. Type 2 diabetes among North adolescents: An epidemiologic health perspective. The Journal of pediatrics, 136, 664-672.
GAGGINI, M., MORELLI, M., BUZZIGOLI, E., DEFRONZO, R. A., BUGIANESI, E. & GASTALDELLI, A. 2013. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its connection with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Nutrients, 5, 1544-1560.
GRUNDY, S. M., CLEEMAN, J. I., DANIELS, S. R., DONATO, K. A., ECKEL, R. H., FRANKLIN, B. A., GORDON, D. J., KRAUSS, R. M., SAVAGE, P. J. & SMITH JR, S. C. 2005. Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation, 112, 2735-2752.
HENCH, P. S. 1936. The diagnosis of gout and gouty arthritis. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine,22, 48-55.
ISHIZAKA, N., ISHIZAKA, Y., TODA, E.-I., NAGAI, R. & YAMAKADO, M. 2005. Association between serum uric acid, metabolic syndrome, and carotid atherosclerosis in Japanese individuals. Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, 25, 1038-1044.
JEONG, I. G., KANG, T., BANG, J. K., PARK, J., KIM, W., HWANG, S. S., KIM, H. K. & PARK, H. K. 2011. Association between metabolic syndrome and the presence of kidney stones in a screened population. American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 58, 383-388.
JOHNSON, R. J., SEGAL, M. S., SAUTIN, Y., NAKAGAWA, T., FEIG, D. I., KANG, D.-H., GERSCH, M. S., BENNER, S. & SÁNCHEZ-LOZADA, L. G. 2007. Potential role of sugar (fructose) in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease–. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 86, 899-906.
KELISHADI, R., ALIKHANI, S., DELAVARI, A., ALAEDINI, F., SAFAIE, A. & HOJATZADEH, E. 2008. Obesity and associated lifestyle behaviours in Iran: findings from the first national non-communicable disease risk factor surveillance survey. Public health nutrition, 11, 246-251.
KUPELIAN, V., MCVARY, K. T., KAPLAN, S. A., HALL, S. A., LINK, C. L., AIYER, L. P., MOLLON, P., TAMIMI, N., ROSEN, R. C. & MCKINLAY, J. B. 2009. Association of lower urinary tract symptoms and the metabolic syndrome: results from the Boston Area Community Health Survey. The Journal of urology, 182, 616-625.
LIVER, E. A. F. T. S. O. T. & DIABETES, E. A. F. T. S. O. 2016. EASL-EASD-EASO Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity facts, 9, 65-90.
LONARDO, A., BALLESTRI, S., MARCHESINI, G., ANGULO, P. & LORIA, P. 2015. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a precursor of the metabolic syndrome. Digestive and Liver Disease, 47, 181-190.
LOVE-OSBORNE, K. A., NADEAU, K. J., SHEEDER, J., FENTON, L. Z. & ZEITLER, P. 2008. Presence of the metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents predicts impaired glucose tolerance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Adolescent Health, 42, 543-548.
MCFARLANE, S. I. & SOWERS, J. R. 2003. Aldosterone function in diabetes mellitus: effects on cardiovascular and renal disease. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88, 516-523.
MISRA, A. & KHURANA, L. 2008. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 93, s9-s30.
NGUYEN, M. T. T., AWALE, S., TEZUKA, Y., LE TRAN, Q., WATANABE, H. & KADOTA, S. 2004. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 27,1414-1421.
PITTENGER, G. L., MEHRABYAN, A., SIMMONS, K., DUBLIN, C., BARLOW, P. & VINIK, A. I. 2005. Small fiber neuropathy is associated with the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 3,113-121.
RAFFAITIN, C., GIN, H., EMPANA, J.-P., HELMER, C., BERR, C., TZOURIO, C., PORTET, F., DARTIGUES, J.-F., ALPÉROVITCH, A. & BARBERGER-GATEAU, P. 2008. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND RISK FOR INCIDENT ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE OR VASCULAR DEMENTIA: THE THREE–CITY STUDY. Diabetes care.
RANASINHA, S., JOHAM, A., NORMAN, R., SHAW, J., ZOUNGAS, S., BOYLE, J., MORAN, L. & TEEDE, H. 2015. The association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and metabolic syndrome: a statistical modelling approach. Clinical endocrinology, 83, 879-887.
SATTAR, N., SCHERBAKOVA, O., FORD, I., O’REILLY, D. S. J., STANLEY, A., FORREST, E., MACFARLANE, P. W., PACKARD, C. J., COBBE, S. M. & SHEPHERD, J. 2004. Elevated alanine aminotransferase predicts new-onset type 2 diabetes independently of classical risk factors, metabolic syndrome, and C-reactive protein in the west of Scotland coronary prevention study. Diabetes, 53, 2855-2860.
SEYEDAN, A., ALSHAWSH, M. A., ALSHAGGA, M. A. & MOHAMED, Z. 2017. Antiobesity and lipid lowering effects of Orthosiphon stamineus in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Planta medica, 83, 684-692.
SREE, N. V., SRI, P. U. & RAMARAO, N. 2015. Neuro-protective properties of orthosiphon staminus (benth) leaf methanolic fraction through antioxidant mechanisms on sh-sy5y cells: an in-vitro evaluation. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES AND RESEARCH, 6, 1115-1125.
SRIPLANG, K., ADISAKWATTANA, S., RUNGSIPIPAT, A. & YIBCHOK-ANUN, S. 2007. Effects of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract on plasma glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109, 510-514.
WEISS, R., BREMER, A. A. & LUSTIG, R. H. 2013. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1281, 123-140.
WENS, I., DALGAS, U., STENAGER, E. & EIJNDE, B. O. 2013. Risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome in multiple sclerosis–a systematic review. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 19,1556-1564.
YIN, J., ZHANG, H. & YE, J. 2008. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of metabolic syndrome. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders-Drug Targets (Formerly Current Drug Targets-Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders), 8, 99-111.