Melanoma is one the most aggressive types of skin cancer. Malignant melanoma has been reported as an angiogenic tumor type, unmistakably showing new vessel arrangement as an essential advance in infection movement from atypical melanocytes, through outspread development to the forceful vertical development stage (Vishkaei, Sultan, Basheer, & Majid, 2017)(Vishkaei, Sultan, Basheer, & Majid, 2017). Orthosiphon stamineus Benth is well known therapeutic herb in south Asia since long time ago for the treatment of bladder inflammation, eruptive fever, hepatitis, hypertension, and rheumatism (Hossain & Rahman, 2015; Vishkaei, Sultan, Khadeer, & Ahamed, 2017). It is abundant with flavonoids with recognized anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic properties (Shafaei et al., 2016). For the treatment of skin diseases, topical drug delivery is one of the desired types of administrations. Due to the selective permeable characteristics of outer layer of skin, which acts as a stringent barrier, in many conditions, permeation enhancers are required to maintain therapeutic quantities of medicine. Traditional liposomal techniques were identified to be efficient at topical drug delivery for the purpose of skin therapy (Bragagni, Scozzafava, Mastrolorenzo, Supuran, & Mura, 2015). However, the conventional liposomal technique has several major drawbacks, such as low drug entrapment, low drug-holding capability, low stability and inefficient drug delivery to the deeper level of the skin In contrast, ethosomal particles through the phospholipid vesicular techniques that include high percentage of alcohol, were efficient at improving dermal and transdermal delivery of either lipophilic or hydrophilic compounds (Mbah, Builders, Agubata, & Attama, 2017). Ethosome vesicles are phospholipid-based elastic nano particles including high concentrations of ethanol (20–45%). Ethanol is identified as an effective permeation booster and has been integrated in the vesicles to make the elastic nano particles. It can mingle with the polar head group part of the lipid substances, causing the elimination of the melting point of lipid in the structure of the stratum corneum, consequently raising lipid fluidity, as well as permeability of cell membrane. The superior flexibility of vesicular membranes is attributed to the presence of ethanol in ethosome. This enables the vesicles to become more elastic and therefore can be easily absorbed into the skin layers by squeezing themselves through the pores of even smaller dimensions. Thereby, in transdermal drug delivery system with respect to the effective amount and depth of penetration, ethosomal technology is significantly more effective than either traditional liposomes or hydroalcoholic formulations (Malla et al., 2016). Some studies have also specified that ethosomal systems also own perfect stability of entrapment due to the fact that the existence of ethanol, that produces a negative surface charge, consequently hindering vesicle aggregation because of electrostatic repulsion. Ethosomal drug delivery system has proved safe and effective in human study, wherein 5-fluorouracil has shown promising result in penetration through human skin (Vishkaei, Sultan, Basheer, et al., 2017)
The main aim of this research work was to develop an optimized topical ethosomal-based formulation of O.S extract with enhanced rate of penetration through deeper layers of skin and treat melanoma tumor model via topical application.