Eman Research Publishing follows the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and endorses the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals as well as the GPP3 guidelines regarding authorship.
Submission of a manuscript to a Eman Research Publishing Journals implies that all authors have read and agreed to its content and that the manuscript conforms to the journal’s policies.
Authorship credit should be based on:
- Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data;
- Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
- Final approval of the version to be published; and
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, 3, and 4.
When a large, multicenter group has conducted the work, the group should identify the individuals who accept direct responsibility for the manuscript (3). These individuals should fully meet the criteria for authorship/contributorship defined above, and editors will ask these individuals to complete journal-specific author and conflict-of-interest disclosure forms. When submitting a manuscript authored by a group, the corresponding author should clearly indicate the preferred citation and identify all individual authors as well as the group name. Journals generally list other members of the group in the Acknowledgments. The NLM indexes the group name and the names of individuals the group has identified as being directly responsible for the manuscript; it also lists the names of collaborators if they are listed in Acknowledgments.
Acquisition of funding, collection of data, or general supervision of the research group alone does not constitute authorship.
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship, and all those who qualify should be listed.
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content.
Increasingly, authorship of multicenter trials is attributed to a group. All members of the group who are named as authors should fully meet the above criteria for authorship/contributorship.
The group should jointly make decisions about contributors/authors before submitting the manuscript for publication. The corresponding author/guarantor should be prepared to explain the presence and order of these individuals. It is not the role of editors to make authorship/contributorship decisions or to arbitrate conflicts related to authorship.
Changes to authorship
Eman Research Publishing does not permit the changing/adding/deleting of authors after submission of the paper.
Contributors Listed in Acknowledgments
All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgments section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chairperson who provided only general support. Authors should declare whether they had assistance with study design, data collection, data analysis, or manuscript preparation. If such assistance was available, the authors should disclose the identity of the individuals who provided this assistance and the entity that supported it in the published article. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged.
Groups of persons who have contributed materially to the article but whose contributions do not justify authorship may be listed under such headings as “clinical investigators” or “participating investigators,” and their function or contribution should be described—for example, “served as scientific advisors,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” or “provided and cared for study patients.” Because readers may infer their endorsement of the data and conclusions, these persons must give written permission to be acknowledged.
Please note: the Authorship and “Contributors Listed in Acknowledgments” sections are reprinted from the ICMJE Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. Eman Research Publishing prepared this reprint. The ICMJE has not endorsed nor approved the contents of this reprint. The official version of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals is located at http://www.icmje.org/. Users should cite this official version when citing the document.
Authors Declaration and Warranties
By submitting any research article for the purposes of publication by Eman Research Publishing Limited the authors must certify and warrant that:
The submitting author has been authorised by any co-authors to submit the research article; and
- They are the sole author(s) of the article and are legally able and entitled to submit the article and authorise Eman Research Publishing to publish the research article. If the law requires that the article be published in the public domain, I/we will notify DMP at the time of submission.
- The research article is original, has not already been published in any other journal (medical, or otherwise) or is not currently under consideration for publication by another journal, and does not infringe any existing copyright or any other rights prescribed by law;
- The article contains nothing that is unlawful, defamatory, or which would, if published, constitute a breach of contract or of confidentiality;
- Due care, diligence and all other requisite investigations were carried out in the preparation of the research article(s) to ensure its accuracy. To the best of their knowledge all statements contained in it purporting to be factual are true and correct.
Number of authors
Consideration should be given to the number of qualified authors needed to take responsibility for the publication. To some extent, this will depend on the complexity of the research and of the publication, but it would be unusual in biomedical research (with few exceptions) to require >10 authors to meet this need. A high number of authors calls into question whether they could all have provided "substantial intellectual contribution." Fewer authors are often preferable, and others can be acknowledged (e.g., as nonauthor contributors or collaborators).
Authors should decide how this will be determined at the initiation of the work, including the designation of the lead and corresponding authors, who may or may not be the same person. Final order, however, should be based on authors' actual roles and contributions in the development of the publication (and therefore cannot be agreed upon until this in complete). Those who made the greatest contribution are generally listed first, but alphabetical order may also be used. It may be useful to describe in the contributorship section of the publication whether alphabetical order or some other convention was used to determine author order.
Addition or removal or author
In certain circumstances during the development of a publication, it may be necessary to add or remove an author (e.g., if an author fails to provide a substantial contribution or approve the final version of the work). In such cases, all authors should agree to the change. Only in rare cases, such as the work substantially changing in response to reviewer comments, should addition or removal of an author be considered after submission.
Death or incapacity of an author
Should an author die after completing a major part of the work, posthumous authorship can be considered if agreed to by all other authors. We suggest, as a first step, seeking advice on correct attribution and process from journal instructions or the editorial office.
If the journal agrees to posthumous authorship but requires submission forms to be signed, then in the case of a sponsor-employed author or a contractor, a supervisor may be the most appropriate proxy. Otherwise, a family member or person with power of attorney should be approached. In all cases, efforts should be made to contact the family of the deceased author to inform them of the intention and request their consent to the listing or acknowledgment.
Change of affiliation
If an author changes affiliation before the work is published, his or her affiliation should reflect where the major part of the work was done. The current affiliation and contact details should be listed in the acknowledgment section. Change of affiliation alone is not a valid reason to remove an author from a publication if he or she meets authorship criteria.
Company- or sponsor-employed authors
Sponsor-employed scientists and clinicians are often qualified to participate as authors of company-sponsored research publications and should have that opportunity. Such authors should not be denied authorship because of concerns about perception of bias. Whatever criteria are used to determine authorship should be applied equally to company employees, contractors, and others.
Professional writers as authors
Professional medical writers who meet applicable authorship criteria should be listed as authors. If writers do not meet authorship criteria, their contribution should be disclosed (e.g., as a nonauthor contributor in the acknowledgment section). Writers who were not involved with study design, data collection, or data analysis and interpretation (e.g., those developing a primary publication from a clinical study report) generally do not meet International Committee of Medical Journal Editors authorship criteria. However, professional writers working on other types of publication (e.g., literature reviews) may qualify as authors.
To ensure scientific publications are of the highest quality, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) have established a series of international ethical standards and guidelines. These guidelines provide advice to editors and publishers on all aspects of publication ethics and, in particular, how to handle cases of research and publication misconduct. COPE also acts as a forum for editors and publishers of peer-reviewed journals to discuss all aspects of publication ethics.
Eman Research Publishing is a member of COPE and subscribes to COPE’s Core Practices and Best Practice Guidelines to ensure the highest standards in publication ethics are upheld. All manuscripts submitted to Eman Research Publishing undergo thorough pre-publication screening for issues relating to patient consent, patient identity protection and animal ethical approval. Authors must be aware of several important publication ethical issues when submitting an article to Eman Research Publishing for publication. These issues are outlined below:
Patient identity/Informed consent
Eman Research Publishing Publishing requires authors to confirm that all patients or participants (or that person’s parent or legal guardian, if the study participant is under 18 years of age) of any research, clinical trials or case studies have provided written informed consent for their details to be used in the manuscript. Similarly, any manuscript containing data, images or videos relating to an individual or group of individuals must have written patient consent for the publication of these details. Authors must also ensure all identifying patient data is anonymized and any nonessential identifying information should be omitted from the article. This includes but is not limited to the patient’s name, address, place of employment, date of birth, telephone number, email address, medical records and patient ID, account numbers, license number, IP address and full or comparable photographic image or video. Eman Research Publishing instructs all authors to read and follow the ICMJE guidelines for the Protection of Research Participants.
Where informed consent has been obtained, it must be indicated in the published article and authors must be able to provide details of this if requested by the editor. The forms must contain all the elements generally expected to be included in a patient consent form. The WHO provides useful informed consent form templates which can be adapted by investigators to suit the needs of their specific studies. It is also the responsibility of the authors to ensure they have adequately archived patient consent forms and inform the journal of this. If any doubt exists about patient identification the Publisher at Eman Research Publishing will be the final arbiter.
Ethical approval of human research
All planning conduct and reporting of human research must be in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. This includes any study involving human subjects, medical records and human tissues. Authors should also seek the approval to conduct research from an independent local, regional or national review board (e.g. Institutional Review Board (IRB) or ethics committee). Any considerations or approvals made by this committee must not reduce or eliminate the protections for research subjects set out by the Declaration of Helsinki. If doubt remains whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the author must demonstrate the rationale for the independent local, regional or national review boards decision. A statement declaring review board approval must be included in the manuscript.
Ethical approval for use of human cell lines and tissues
Human cell lines and tissues are considered forms of human biospecimens. For this reason, we please ask authors to include a statement in their manuscripts detailing the relevant ethical approval and patient consent for the use of human cell lines or tissues in their studies. This is an essential requirement especially where the human material used is potentially identifiable, such as material contained in biobanks or similar repositories. If the cell lines or tissues were purchased through an accredited commercial provider, please provide details of this. If ethical approval or patient consent was not sought or provided, please provide an explanation for this.
Case reports/Case series/Clinical datasets
Eman Research Publishing considers a case report to be the diagnosis, treatment and post-treatment follow-up of a single patient. In comparison, a case series is considered a group of case reports involving patients who were all given similar treatment. A clinical dataset is a list of well-defined variables collected during the course of ongoing patient care or as part of a clinical trial program. It includes electronic health records, administrative data, patient registries, and clinical trial data.
In some instances, a case report or case series containing information on less than three patients may not require IRB approval. This is because a case series of less than three subjects may not be considered generalized knowledge or research. However, this requirement is dependant on the institution, country or region implementing it and authors must ensure they have followed the correct regulatory requirements of their respective institution or country. Outside this requirement, all case reports, case series or clinical datasets must have IRB approval and authors must be aware that IRB approval cannot be given retroactively. A statement declaring IRB approval must be included in the manuscript. Details of Journals’ Best Practices for Ensuring Consent for Publishing Medical Case Reports can be found on COPEs website.
Ethical approval of animal research
All manuscripts involving animal research must show the work followed international, national and institutional guidelines for the ethical and legal treatment of animals. Authors must show the study was approved by an ethics review committee from the same institution at which the study was conducted. For non-human primate studies and veterinary studies using client-owned animals, it must be demonstrated the work meets the standards set out in NC3Rs primates guidelines and follows veterinary care best practices guidelines. For veterinary studies informed client consent must also be provided. Eman Research Publishing advises all authors conducting animal research to read and follow NC3Rs ARRIVE guidelines. The guidelines set out the currently accepted procedures for the reporting of research using animals and are available in various translations including Chinese Mandarin. A statement declaring the ethical review committee’s approval must be included in the manuscript.
Ethics FAQ for authors
Q: Do I need ethics approval for retrospective patient data?
A: Yes. Approval from a formally constituted review board (Institutional Review Board or Ethics committee) is required for all studies involving people, medical records, and human samples.
Q: Do I need patient consent for the use of retrospective data?
A: Informed consent by participants should always be sought. If not possible, an institutional review board must decide if this is ethically acceptable. A statement should be included in the Materials and Methods section of your manuscript, regarding the IRB decision.
Q: Do I need ethics approval for a review article or meta-analysis article?
A: No. This will have been obtained by the original authors.
Q: Do I need ethics approval for using samples sourced from commercial providers?
A: Yes. Approval from a formally constituted review board (Institutional Review Board or Ethics committee) is required for all studies involving people, medical records, and human samples.
Q: If ethics approval was not required, what statement should I include in my manuscript?
A: For those investigators who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed. If the study is judged exempt, a statement from the ethics committee is required. A statement should be included in the Materials and Methods section of your manuscript, regarding the decision.
Q: Do I need ethical approval when reporting on veterinary clinical cases?
A: No. For studies using client-owned animals, a high standard (best practice) of veterinary care and involves informed client consent statement should be included in the Materials and Methods section.
Q: Do I need ethics approval for studies involving live animals?
A: Yes. You must specify in the Materials and Methods section of your manuscript, the ethical review committee approval, and the international, national, and/or institutional guidelines followed regarding the animals welfare.
Q: Do I need approval for cells that have been sourced from an accredited commercial provider?
A: No. However, if cells have been gifted, or not sourced from an accredited commercial provider, we require confirmation that the research has been approved by a named institutional review board or ethics committee.
All manuscripts submitted to Eman Research Publishing undergo single blind peer review. An outline of this process is available on the peer review schematic. Authors may lodge an appeal against an editorial decision. They should send grounds for their appeal to firstname.lastname@example.org. The appeal will be heard by the Editor-in-Chief in conjunction with one or more Editorial Board members or Associate Editors. The Editor-in-Chief's decision on the appeal will be final.
Portability of peer review
Eman Research Publishing supports thorough and efficient peer review and has put in place streamlined processes to allow for rapid peer review and avoid unnecessary re-review of revised manuscripts. In cases where a manuscript reporting sound science does not reach the interest level set for a given Eman Research Publishing journal and is rejected, the authors may be offered the option to transfer their manuscript to another Eman Research Publishing provided it is in scope of that journal. In such cases, the peer reviewers’ reports are also transferred to the other journal.
Before the authors are contacted regarding a possible manuscript transfer, the Editor-in-Chief may share the manuscript with the Editors-in-Chief of other Eman Research Publishing. Authors, who do not wish their manuscript to be shared with other Eman Research Publishing should mention this in their cover letter. Peer reviewers, who do not wish to have their report shared with other Eman Research Publishing should mention this in the confidential comments to the Editor-in-Chief section of their report.
Should authors agree to have their manuscript transferred to another Eman Research Publishing for evaluation it does not imply that their manuscript will be accepted for publication by the other journal. In some occasions the Editor-in-Chief of the receiving journal may decide to conduct their own peer review and/or reject the manuscript.